Air pollution is a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, and the individual's health status and genetics.
Although the health consequences are extensive, the way the problem is handled is often haphazard. Local laws where well enforced in cities have led to strong public health improvements. At the international level some of these efforts have been successful, for example the Montreal Protocol which successful at reducing release of harmful ozone depleting chemicals or Helsinki Protocol which reduced sulfur emissions, while other attempts have been less rapid in implementation, such as international action on climate change.
An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made. Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are usually produced by processes such as ash from a volcanic eruption.
Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhausts or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Ground level ozone is a prominent example of a secondary pollutant. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. Persistent organic pollutants POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment.
Air pollutant emission factors are reported representative values that attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant e.
Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages. There are 12 compounds in the list of persistent organic pollutants. Dioxins and furans are two of them and intentionally created by combustion of organics, like open burning of plastics. These compounds are also endocrine disruptors and can mutate the human genes.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a wide range of industrial sources. Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant.
Air pollution exposure can be expressed for an individual, for certain groups e. For example, one may want to calculate the exposure to a hazardous air pollutant for a geographic area, which includes the various microenvironments and age groups. This can be calculated  as an inhalation exposure. This would account for daily exposure in various settings e.
The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and other sensitive subpopulations. The exposure to an air pollutant must integrate the concentrations of the air pollutant with respect to the time spent in each setting and the respective inhalation rates for each subgroup for each specific time that the subgroup is in the setting and engaged in particular activities playing, cooking, reading, working, spending time in traffic, etc.
For example, a small child's inhalation rate will be less than that of an adult. A child engaged in vigorous exercise will have a higher respiration rate than the same child in a sedentary activity. The daily exposure, then, needs to reflect the time spent in each micro-environmental setting and the type of activities in these settings. A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time.
Radon Rn gas, a carcinogen , is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde H 2 CO gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds VOCs as they dry.
Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners , incense , and other scented items. Controlled wood fires in cook stoves and fireplaces can add significant amounts of harmful smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Carbon monoxide poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors or in a confined space, such as a tent.
Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas and hydrogen sulfide , out of interiors. Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene , or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning. Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use of asbestos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities.
Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Sufferers have severe dyspnea shortness of breath and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer.
As clear explanations are not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases. According to the World Health Organization WHO , these may be defined as asbestosis , lung cancer , and peritoneal mesothelioma generally a very rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure to asbestos.
Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms on walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants , soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen , dust, and mold.
Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. Even at levels lower than those considered safe by United States regulators, exposure to three components of air pollution, fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone , correlates with cardiac and respiratory illness.
These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency department visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Children aged less than five years that live in developing countries are the most vulnerable population in terms of total deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution.
The World Health Organization estimated in that every year air pollution causes the premature death of some 7 million people worldwide. India has the highest death rate due to air pollution. In December air pollution was estimated to kill , people in China each year. Annual premature European deaths caused by air pollution are estimated at ,  ,  An important cause of these deaths is nitrogen dioxide and other nitrogen oxides NOx emitted by road vehicles. Urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.
Children are particularly at risk due to the immaturity of their respiratory organ systems. The US EPA estimated in that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine technology Tier 2 could result in 12, fewer premature mortalities , 15, fewer heart attacks , 6, fewer emergency department visits by children with asthma, and 8, fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the United States. The US EPA has estimated that limiting ground-level ozone concentration to 65 parts per billion, would avert 1, to 5, premature deaths nationwide in compared with the ppb standard.
The agency projected the more protective standard would also prevent an additional 26, cases of aggravated asthma, and more than a million cases of missed work or school. A new economic study of the health impacts and associated costs of air pollution in the Los Angeles Basin and San Joaquin Valley of Southern California shows that more than 3, people die prematurely approximately 14 years earlier than normal each year because air pollution levels violate federal standards.
The number of annual premature deaths is considerably higher than the fatalities related to auto collisions in the same area, which average fewer than 2, per year. Diesel exhaust DE is a major contributor to combustion-derived particulate matter air pollution.
In several human experimental studies, using a well-validated exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to acute vascular dysfunction and increased thrombus formation. The mechanisms linking air pollution to increased cardiovascular mortality are uncertain, but probably include pulmonary and systemic inflammation.
A study by Greenpeace estimates there are 4. Air pollution is also emerging as a risk factor for stroke, particularly in developing countries where pollutant levels are highest. Research has demonstrated increased risk of developing asthma  and COPD  from increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Additionally, air pollution has been associated with increased hospitalization and mortality from asthma and COPD. A study conducted in — in the wake of the Great Smog of compared London residents with residents of Gloucester, Peterborough, and Norwich, three towns with low reported death rates from chronic bronchitis.
All subjects were male postal truck drivers aged 40 to Compared to the subjects from the outlying towns, the London subjects exhibited more severe respiratory symptoms including cough, phlegm, and dyspnea , reduced lung function FEV 1 and peak flow rate , and increased sputum production and purulence. The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded that air pollution was the most likely cause of the observed differences.
It is believed that much like cystic fibrosis , by living in a more urban environment serious health hazards become more apparent. Studies have shown that in urban areas patients suffer mucus hypersecretion, lower levels of lung function, and more self-diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
A review of evidence regarding whether ambient air pollution exposure is a risk factor for cancer in found solid data to conclude that long-term exposure to PM2. Exposure to PM2. The review further noted that living close to busy traffic appears to be associated with elevated risks of these three outcomes — increase in lung cancer deaths, cardiovascular deaths, and overall non-accidental deaths. The reviewers also found suggestive evidence that exposure to PM2. In , a large Danish epidemiological study found an increased risk of lung cancer for patients who lived in areas with high nitrogen oxide concentrations.
In this study, the association was higher for non-smokers than smokers. In the United States, despite the passage of the Clean Air Act in , in at least million Americans were living in non-attainment areas —regions in which the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards. Protective measures to ensure children's health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi , India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog.
Prenatal exposure to polluted air has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. For example, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH was associated with reduced IQ scores and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In Los Angeles, children who were living in areas with high levels of traffic-related air pollution were more likely to be diagnosed with autism between years of age. Some PAHs are considered endocrine disruptors and are lipid soluble.
When they build up in adipose tissue, they can be transferred across the placenta. Ambient levels of air pollution have been associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. A WHO worldwide survey on maternal and perinatal health found a statistically significant association between low birth weights LBW and increased levels of exposure to PM2.
Women in regions with greater than average PM2. A study by the University of York found that in exposure to PM2. The source of PM 2. A study performed by Wang, et al. A group of 74, pregnant women, in four separate regions of Beijing, were monitored from early pregnancy to delivery along with daily air pollution levels of sulfur Dioxide and TSP along with other particulates. The estimated reduction in birth weight was 7. These associations were statistically significant in both summer and winter, although, summer was greater.
This is the largest attributable risk ever reported for the known risk factors of low birth weight. Brauer et al. Even in areas with relatively low levels of air pollution, public health effects can be significant and costly, since a large number of people breathe in such pollutants. A study published in found that even in areas of the U.
In , scientists found that the boundary layer air over the Southern Ocean around Antarctica is unpolluted by humans. Data is accumulating that air pollution exposure also affects the central nervous system. In a June study conducted by researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives , it was discovered that early exposure to air pollution causes the same damaging changes in the brain as autism and schizophrenia.
The study also shows that air pollution also affected short-term memory , learning ability, and impulsivity. Lead researcher Professor Deborah Cory-Slechta said that "When we looked closely at the ventricles , we could see that the white matter that normally surrounds them hadn't fully developed. It appears that inflammation had damaged those brain cells and prevented that region of the brain from developing, and the ventricles simply expanded to fill the space.
Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that air pollution may play a role in autism , as well as in other neurodevelopmental disorders. In , experimental studies reported the detection of significant episodic situational cognitive impairment from impurities in indoor air breathed by test subjects who were not informed about changes in the air quality.
Researchers at the Harvard University and SUNY Upstate Medical University and Syracuse University measured the cognitive performance of 24 participants in three different controlled laboratory atmospheres that simulated those found in "conventional" and "green" buildings, as well as green buildings with enhanced ventilation.
Performance was evaluated objectively using the widely used Strategic Management Simulation software simulation tool, which is a well-validated assessment test for executive decision-making in an unconstrained situation allowing initiative and improvisation. Significant deficits were observed in the performance scores achieved in increasing concentrations of either volatile organic compounds VOCs or carbon dioxide , while keeping other factors constant. The highest impurity levels reached are not uncommon in some classroom or office environments.
In India in , it was reported that air pollution by black carbon and ground level ozone had reduced crop yields in the most affected areas by almost half in when compared to levels. One out of ten deaths in was caused by diseases associated with air pollution and the problem is getting worse. The problem is even more acute in the developing world. Artificial air pollution may be detectable on Earth from distant vantage points such as other planetary systems via atmospheric SETI — including NO 2 pollution levels and with telescopic technology close to today.
It may also be possible to detect extraterrestrial civilizations this way. The world's worst short-term civilian pollution crisis was the Bhopal Disaster in India. In six days more than 4, died and more recent estimates put the figure at nearer 12, Various pollution control technologies and strategies are available to reduce air pollution.
In most developed countries, land-use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population, as well as to protect the environment. Because a large share of air pollution is caused by combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil , the reduction of these fuels can reduce air pollution drastically.
Most effective is the switch to clean power sources such as wind power , solar power , hydro power which don't cause air pollution. Titanium dioxide has been researched for its ability to reduce air pollution. Ultraviolet light will release free electrons from material, thereby creating free radicals, which break up VOCs and NOx gases. One form is superhydrophilic. In , Prof. Tony Ryan and Prof. Simon Armitage of University of Sheffield prepared a 10 meter by 20 meter-sized poster coated with microscopic, pollution-eating nanoparticles of titanium dioxide.
Placed on a building, this giant poster can absorb the toxic emission from around 20 cars each day. A very effective means to reduce air pollution is the transition to renewable energy. There is limited evidence that efforts to reduce particulate matter in the air can result in better health in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices in industry and transportation.
They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere. In general, there are two types of air quality standards. The first class of standards such as the U. Air Quality Directive set maximum atmospheric concentrations for specific pollutants.
Environmental agencies enact regulations which are intended to result in attainment of these target levels. The second class such as the North American air quality index take the form of a scale with various thresholds, which is used to communicate to the public the relative risk of outdoor activity.
The scale may or may not distinguish between different pollutants. It is a health protection tool used to make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution. From air quality monitoring to health risk communication and community engagement, local partners are responsible for the vast majority of work related to AQHI implementation.
Occasionally, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed The AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight and tomorrow and provides associated health advice.
As it is now known that even low levels of air pollution can trigger discomfort for the sensitive population, the index has been developed as a continuum: The higher the number, the greater the health risk and need to take precautions. The index describes the level of health risk associated with this number as 'low', 'moderate', 'high' or 'very high', and suggests steps that can be taken to reduce exposure.
The measurement is based on the observed relationship of nitrogen dioxide NO 2 , ground-level ozone O 3 and particulates PM 2. Significantly, all three of these pollutants can pose health risks, even at low levels of exposure, especially among those with pre-existing health problems. When developing the AQHI, Health Canada's original analysis of health effects included five major air pollutants: particulates, ozone , and nitrogen dioxide NO2 , as well as sulfur dioxide SO 2 , and carbon monoxide CO.
The latter two pollutants provided little information in predicting health effects and were removed from the AQHI formulation. The AQHI does not measure the effects of odour, pollen , dust, heat or humidity. Air pollution hotspots are areas where air pollution emissions expose individuals to increased negative health effects.
Emissions from these sources can cause respiratory disease , childhood asthma ,  cancer , and other health problems. Fine particulate matter such as diesel soot , which contributes to more than 3. It is very small and can lodge itself within the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Diesel soot is concentrated in densely populated areas, and one in six people in the U.
While air pollution hotspots affect a variety of populations, some groups are more likely to be located in hotspots. Hazardous land uses toxic storage and disposal facilities, manufacturing facilities, major roadways tend to be located where property values and income levels are low.
Low socioeconomic status can be a proxy for other kinds of social vulnerability , including race, a lack of ability to influence regulation and a lack of ability to move to neighborhoods with less environmental pollution. These communities bear a disproportionate burden of environmental pollution and are more likely to face health risks such as cancer or asthma. Studies show that patterns in race and income disparities not only indicate a higher exposure to pollution but also higher risk of adverse health outcomes.
Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan areas, especially in developing countries where environmental regulations are relatively lax or nonexistent. While smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer in China, the number of smokers is falling while lung cancer rates are rising.
On 25 July in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern, the European Court of Justice ruled that under this directive  citizens have the right to require national authorities to implement a short term action plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.
This important case law appears to confirm the role of the EC as centralised regulator to European nation-states as regards air pollution control. It places a supranational legal obligation on the UK to protect its citizens from dangerous levels of air pollution, furthermore superseding national interests with those of the citizen. In response to these charges, Boris Johnson , Mayor of London , has criticised the current need for European cities to communicate with Europe through their nation state's central government , arguing that in future "A great city like London" should be permitted to bypass its government and deal directly with the European Commission regarding its air quality action plan.
This can be interpreted as recognition that cities can transcend the traditional national government organisational hierarchy and develop solutions to air pollution using global governance networks, for example through transnational relations. Transnational relations include but are not exclusive to national governments and intergovernmental organisations,  allowing sub-national actors including cities and regions to partake in air pollution control as independent actors.
Particularly promising at present are global city partnerships. The C40 is a public 'non-state' network of the world's leading cities that aims to curb their greenhouse emissions. According to one projection, by half of the world's pollution emissions could be generated by Africa.
Global warming portal Environment portal. Air pollution, its cruel impact and preventions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Harmful substances in the atmosphere. For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air.
For the measure of how polluted the air is, see Air quality index. For the properties of air, see Qualities of air. Air pollution. Electromagnetic pollution. Light Ecological light pollution Overillumination Radio spectrum pollution.
Natural pollution. Ozone Radium and radon in the environment Volcanic ash Wildfire. Noise pollution. Radiation pollution. Soil pollution. Solid waste pollution. Space pollution. Thermal pollution. Urban heat island. Visual pollution. Air travel Clutter advertising Traffic signs Overhead power lines Vandalism.
Water pollution. Diseases Most polluted cities. Temperate and polar seasons. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Tropical seasons. Please contact the Publisher, Sherestha Saini at Sherestha. Issue 8, August As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.
Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Rights and permissions. Springer policies. There are no page charges to publish in this journal. All articles accepted after February 1, will have free color online and in print. Covers all aspects of pollution and solutions to pollution in the biosphere Includes chemical, physical and biological processes affecting flora, fauna, water, air and soil Also presents papers on methods used in the study of environmental pollutants, environmental toxicology, biology and engineering related to pollution, and more.
Latest issue. Volume Issue 8, August View all volumes and issues. Vela-Cano C. Garcia-Fontana J. This journal has open access articles.
HR specialists need to understand business strategy. A broader approach to lobbying than simply lodging an online petition. Movie version: Katniss frees Rue from the trap, but then a spear is thrown at her. This guidebook for mentees teaches youth how to seek out appropriate mentors who can help them with their next steps in life once leaving a mentoring program or other system of support. When these fuels are struck by neutrons, they are in turn capable of emitting neutrons when they break apart.
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