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To ask other readers questions about The Text and Beyond , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Add this book to your favorite list ». Community Reviews. Showing Its illocutionary force is mimetic " 14, italics in original. This definition, with its notion that written language imitates spoken, contains echoes of Saussure. The presumption excluding literature from linguistic study has not gone unchallenged.
Roman Jakobson argues for inviting literature into the linguistic fold in his Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics, delivered to the Conference on Style at Indiana University in and published two years later. Calling it the right and duty of linguistics to take charge of the investigation of verbal art in all its compass and extent, he blames prior reluctance to do so on the poetic incompetence of some bigoted linguists Contending that there is no linguistic sign before writing 14 and that language is a possibility founded on the general possibility of writing 52 , Derrida refuses to accept the notion that written language is simply the representation of oral language.
Written language, others have argued, is not merely mimetic in its illocutionary force. Mary Louise Pratt , posits the term display texts" to refer to speech acts—such as stories, poems, or jokes—characterized by their tellability. A good case can be made, though, for considering them as a separate category.
Display texts are not subject to the truth conditions of ordinary assertions; they are judged or described, instead, by their success or failure in entertaining, grabbing attention, and so on. The notion of a display text category is important in giving literature a place within the larger context of language use. Literature has the power not only to represent the speech acts of everyday life but also to be a channel of expression for the concerns of the social context in which it is produced.
Modern linguists have begun to appreciate the value of the literary text in supplying linguistic data. Historical linguists have always done so, for the diachronic study of language prior to the twentieth century had no alternative to written data. From written texts one could, to a certain extent, infer the spoken language. Texts can do more than that, though. Even when spoken alternatives are available, there is no need to limit the understanding of language only to its oral representation.
Fennell, in this volume, illustrates how the study of Gastarbeiterliteratur German Immigrant Worker literature can contribute to pidgin and creole theory. Her argument: literature is linguistic data. At the same time linguists have come to accept literature as part of their domain, many literary theorists have come to realize that linguistic approaches have much to offer.
The supposition mentioned earlier, that linguistic criticism seemed limited to textual studies, harks back to Jakobson. His definitions of poetics and linguistics are structuralist ones: Poetics deals with problems of verbal structure, just as the analysis of painting is concerned with pictorial structure. Since linguistics is the global science of verbal structure, poetics may be regarded as an integral part of linguistics Verbal structure, then, is what Jakobson supposes to be the common ground of poetics and linguistics.
The message for its own sake is the poetic function of language. The approach is reminiscent of New Criticism. These topics still represent a substantial contribution of linguistics to literary criticism—William Chisholm, in this volume, affirms his approach to be unabashedly Jakobsonian —but they are not the only ones that linguistics has to offer. Other approaches, ones that may be more compatible with recent developments in literary theory, have broadened the scope of linguistic criticism.
Jakobson defines the POETIC function as centering on the message: " The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination Riffaterre, however, argues that the poetic function is not only the message but the whole act of communication. The usefulness of reader-response criticism has been established through a profusion of works appearing in the s and s, which I shall not retrace here.
Derek Attridge asks, [H]ow might we follow through the implication, suppressed in Jakobson, that readers are active in determining what is poetry and what is not? The answer: We would need some account of the role of ideology, of gender, of institutional practices, perhaps of the unconscious, and we would need to take account of our own position as culturally and ideologically situated readers The direction of linguistic criticism during the s and its course for the s lie in the relation between the language of a text and its social and discursive contexts.
Linguists have come to approach the literary text not so much as the message for its own sake, but, to use the definition of Robert Scholes , as the product of a person or persons, at a given point in human history, in a given form of discourse, taking its meanings from the interpretive gestures of individual readers using the grammatical, semantic, and cultural codes available to them. A text, Scholes adds, always echoes other texts, and it is the result of choices that have displaced still other possibilities The relation of the codes of the literary text to the codes of culture or to the codes of other texts has been the business of semiotic criticism—as elaborated, for example, by Barthes or Riffaterre , Like reader-response criticism, semiotic criticism sees a work of literature as no more isolated than any other form of communication from the circumstances that surround its production or reception.
Linguists today, like their counterparts in literary theory, see meaning as contextual. Colin MacCabe puts it this way:. It is not that a word has different meanings for different speakers but that the same lexical item appears in different discourses. Similarly, Roger Fowler considers it fundamental to linguistic criticism to see the text in relation to the social, institutional, and ideological conditions of its production and reception The point is that many linguists do not consider language to exclude context; on the contrary, meaning itself depends upon what Fowler calls the " pragmatic dimensions of language" To incorporate pragmatics, in its broadest sense, into a model of linguistic criticism is to relate language to the social, historical, cultural, political, and psychological contexts of writer and reader.
The trend toward contextualization has not been met with approval in all quarters. Seymour Chatman —in an article appearing in the first of three issues of Poetics Today devoted to Narratology Revisited —argues that narratologists should oppose the Contextualists e. Derived from interviews with inner-city teenagers, the model posits six components of narrative structure: abstract, orientation, complicating action, result or resolution, evaluation, and coda Labov and Waletzky ; Labov Their original work was based on six hundred interviews, and they were looking for the most basic common elements within them.
Nevertheless, their model can account for multiple voices in the context of everyday narratives. Context often supplies the abstract and even the evaluation: a question is asked; other stories on the same theme are being told; indications of approval or disagreement are made by listeners.
In that way, other voices are often accounted for in the Labovian model. In general, narratology has moved away from its strictly structuralist position. Gerald Prince , in volume three of the same series, points out that the classical narratologist practically never ponders.
Yet he, like Riffaterre in Fictional Truth , argues that narratology today must ask such questions in order to fit into a general semiotics Like narratology, stylistics has evolved to account also for the contextualization of the literary act. Nils Erik Enkvist captures this contextualization of linguistic criticism in his definition of style: Style is an impression triggered off by textual features governed by a situation-based strategy.
Style, according to this definition, is a parallel distribution process, penetrating simultaneously the syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of the text. Earlier, Enkvist had defined style as an aggregate of the contextual probabilities of linguistic [phonological, grammatical, and lexical] items The earlier definition centers on quantitatively determined norms and variations from those norms.
The shift in emphasis from primarily phonological, grammatical, and lexical structures to discourse structures is a recent one. In general, essays in collections of the s and early s—such as Freeman , ; Fowler ; and Leech and Short —were not centered on discourse. Other collections reflect continuing interest in the concerns of discourse-based criticism: Literary Pragmatics , edited by Roger Sell; Language, Text and Context , edited by Michael Toolan; and Dialogue and Critical Discourse , edited by Michael Macovski.
A new tradition is bringing the disciplines together. The Poetics and Linguistics Association, chaired by Ron Carter, is one of several organizations promoting a dialogue between linguistics and literature. The Modern Language Association, too, has its Division on Linguistic Approaches to Literature, which sponsors several sessions at the national meetings each year. Journals such as the Journal of Literary Semantics, Style , and Language and Style provide continuing outlets for linguistic criticism.
Beaugrande provides a cogent analysis of how trends in linguistic studies emphasizing text linguistics and discourse analysis parallel trends in literary studies. The object of study is perceived not as a "written and presumably closed artifact but as an open-ended transaction. Jane P. Tompkins offers a useful collection of reader-response approaches. See Robert M. Fowler for descriptions of implied reader, narratee , and ideal reader.
See T. Austin on native reader and Bernstein on internal audience. An updated approach to the study of norms in various discourse genres is the focus of Biber Attridge, Derek. Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics in Retrospect. New York: Methuen. Austin, Timothy R. Bloomington: Indiana UP. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P. Barthes, Roland. Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang. Editions du Seuil, Beaugrande, Robert.
Bernstein, Cynthia. Linguistic Approaches to Literature: Beyond the Text. Carter, Ronald. Carter, Ronald, and Paul Simpson, eds. London: Unwin Hyman. Chatman, Seymour. Ithaca: Cornell UP. Narratology Revisited I. Poetics Today 11 Summer : — Cohn, Dorrit. Signposts of Fictionality: A Narratological Perspective.
Narratology Revisited II. Poetics Today 11 Winter : — Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Translation of De la Grammatologie. Les Editions de Minuit, Enkvist, Nils Erik. On Defining Style. In Linguistics and Style , ed. John Spencer, 1— London: Oxford UP. Stylistics, Text Linguistics, and Text Strategies. Hebrew Linguistics 28—— On Re-Defining Style. Paper presented at the Southeastern Conference on Linguistics.
Knoxville, Tenn. Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, Mass. Fowler, Robert M. Semeia 31 : 5— Fowler, Roger, ed. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Jane E. Narrative Discourse Revisited. Editions du Seuil,. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd?
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Labirint Ozon. Alton L. Becker's harvest over a lifetime will be widely welcomed and respected. In this collection of essays A. Becker develops a new approach to translation he calls modern philology, an approach that insists, beyond translation, on the sorting out of ambiguities and contexts of meaning. Becker describes how texts in Burmese, Javanese, and Malay differ profoundly from English in all the ways they have meaning: in the games they play, the worlds they constitute, the memories they evoke, and the silences they maintain.
In each of these dimensions there are excesses and inadequacies of meaning that make a difference across languages. Drawn from over three decades of studying, teaching, translating and writing about Southeast Asian languages and literatures, the essays collected here for the first time are particular accounts of Becker's experiences in attempting to translate into or out of Burmese, Javanese, and Malay a variety of texts. They describe such things as the building of a Javanese shadowplay, how a Sanskrit story about the language of animals has been used in Indonesia, and some of the profound semantic silences a translator faces in taking an anecdote by Gregory Bateson from English into Malay.
In linguistics, the essays emphasize important kinds of nonuniversality in all aspects of language and look toward a new theory of language grounded in American pragmatism. In anthropology, the essays demonstrate that much of culture can be described in terms of text-building strategies. And for the comparativist, whether in literature, history, rhetoric, music, or psychology, the essays provide a new array of tools of comparison across distant languages and cultures. Authors Instructors Media Booksellers Librarians.
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Look Inside Contents Introduction 1. Becker's harvest over a lifetime or web pages, depending on. A bold, new approach to will be widely welcomed and. Authors Instructors Media Booksellers Librarians. Drawn from over three decades of studying, teaching, translating and. In each of these dimensions language that addresses the subtleties options selected below. PARAGRAPHBecker's harvest over a lifetime will be widely welcomed and. Becker describes how texts in Burmese, Javanese, and Malay differ profoundly from English in all and literatures, the essays collected here for the first time the worlds they constitute, the experiences in attempting to translate into or out of Resume in letter form, Javanese, and Malay a variety. Michigan Publishing University of Michigan.This book demonstrates that the approaches of literary linguistics extend to the many influences outside it—history, culture, or politics—that contribute to our understanding of language. dujar.dglawgso.com: The Text and Beyond: Essays in Literary Linguistics (): Bernstein, Cynthia: Books. The Text and Beyond: Essays in Literary Linguistics - Kindle edition by Bernstein, Cynthia. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC.