democracy a chance of survival essay

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Democracy a chance of survival essay

If we fail to hold them creatively, these contradictions will shut us down and take us out of the action. But when we allow their tensions to expand our hearts, they can open us to new understandings of ourselves and our world, enhancing our lives and allowing us to enhance the lives of others. We are imperfect and broken beings who inhabit an imperfect and broken world.

The genius of the human heart lies in its capacity to use these tensions to generate insight, energy, and new life. Making the most of those gifts requires a fourth key habit of the heart…. A sense of personal voice and agency. Insight and energy give rise to new life as we speak out and act out our own version of truth, while checking and correcting it against the truths of others. But many of us lack confidence in our voices and in our power to make a difference.

We grow up in educational and religious institutions that treat us as members of an audience instead of actors in a drama, and as a result, we become adults who treat politics as a spectator sport. And yet it remains possible for us, young and old alike, to find our voices, learn how to speak them, and know the satisfaction that comes from contributing to positive change—if we have the support of a community.

Which leads to a fifth and final habit of the heart…. A capacity to create community. Without a community, it is nearly impossible to achieve voice: it takes a village to raise a Rosa Parks. In a mass society like ours, community rarely comes ready-made. But creating community in the places where we live and work does not mean abandoning other parts of our lives to become full-time organizers.

The steady companionship of two or three kindred spirits can help us find the courage we need to speak and act as citizens. There are many ways to plant and cultivate the seeds of community in our personal and local lives. We must all become gardeners of community if we want democracy to flourish. If I were asked for two words to summarize the habits of the heart American citizens need in response to twenty-first-century conditions, I would choose chutzpah and humility.

By chutzpah, I mean knowing that I have a voice that needs to be heard and the right to speak it. American Democracy is a non-stop experiment in the strengths and weaknesses of our political institutions, local communities, and the human heart. The experiment is endless unless we blow up the lab, and the explosives to do the job are found within us.

But so, also, is the heart's alchemy that can turn suffering into compassion, conflict into community, and tension into energy for creativity amid democracy's demands. Today we are in the middle of another election cycle. Once again, false claims, half-truths, hateful rhetoric, fear-mongering and demonization of the opposition dominate our civic space, driving out the genuine issue-oriented debate a democracy needs to survive and thrive.

We need citizens with chutzpah and humility to occupy our civic space and call American democracy back to health. There is no reason, at least no good reason, why our number cannot be legion. In his book Healing the Heart of Democracy: The Courage to Create a Politics Worthy of the Human Spirit , Palmer explores attitudes and practices he believes are essential within both individuals and communities to strengthen democracy and the ideals upon which it was founded.

These lessons, available for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms, explore the habits and values that have the potential to nurture a healthy democracy. Students will engage in learning activities that prompt them to consider and envision a healthy democracy in their lives and in the communities in which they live. Stories and lessons for growing minds. Lesson Plans. Log In. Continue With Facebook or. Forgot password?

Which leads to a third key habit of the heart… An ability to hold tension in life-giving ways. Making the most of those gifts requires a fourth key habit of the heart… A sense of personal voice and agency. Which leads to a fifth and final habit of the heart… A capacity to create community. What Students will Uncover. This requires the creation of a new social contract, based on trust and cooperation, which sees citizens and customers not as obstacles or resources to be exploited, but as partners.

For this, the state would have to provide an appropriate regulatory framework, which ensures that technologies are designed and used in ways that are compatible with democracy. This would have to guarantee informational self-determination, not only theoretically, but also practically, because it is a precondition for us to lead our lives in a self-determined and responsible manner. There should also be a right to get a copy of personal data collected about us.

It should be regulated by law that this information must be automatically sent, in a standardized format, to a personal data store, through which individuals could manage the use of their data potentially supported by particular AI-based digital assistants.

To ensure greater privacy and to prevent discrimination, the unauthorised use of data would have to be punishable by law. Individuals would then be able to decide who can use their information, for what purpose and for how long. Furthermore, appropriate measures should be taken to ensure that data is securely stored and exchanged. Sophisticated reputation systems considering multiple criteria could help to increase the quality of information on which our decisions are based.

If data filters and recommendation and search algorithms would be selectable and configurable by the user, we could look at problems from multiple perspectives, and we would be less prone to manipulation by distorted information. In addition, we need an efficient complaints procedure for citizens, as well as effective sanctions for violations of the rules.

Finally, in order to create sufficient transparency and trust, leading scientific institutions should act as trustees of the data and algorithms that currently evade democratic control. This would also require an appropriate code of conduct that, at the very least, would have to be followed by anyone with access to sensitive data and algorithms—a kind of Hippocratic Oath for IT professionals.

Furthermore, we would require a digital agenda to lay the foundation for new jobs and the future of the digital society. Every year we invest billions in the agricultural sector and public infrastructure, schools and universities—to the benefit of industry and the service sector.

Which public systems do we therefore need to ensure that the digital society becomes a success? First, completely new educational concepts are needed. This should be more focused on critical thinking, creativity, inventiveness and entrepreneurship than on creating standardised workers whose tasks, in the future, will be done by robots and computer algorithms.

Education should also provide an understanding of the responsible and critical use of digital technologies, because citizens must be aware of how the digital world is intertwined with the physical one. In order to effectively and responsibly exercise their rights, citizens must have an understanding of these technologies, but also of what uses are illegitimate.

This is why there is all the more need for science, industry, politics, and educational institutions to make this knowledge widely available. Secondly, a participatory platform is needed that makes it easier for people to become self-employed, set up their own projects, find collaboration partners, market products and services worldwide, manage resources and pay tax and social security contributions a kind of sharing economy for all.

To complement this, towns and even villages could set up centers for the emerging digital communities such as fab labs , where ideas can be jointly developed and tested for free. Thanks to the open and innovative approach found in these centers, massive, collaborative innovation could be promoted. Particular kinds of competitions could provide additional incentives for innovation, help increase public visibility and generate momentum for a participatory digital society.

They could be particularly useful in mobilising civil society to ensure local contributions to global problems solving for example, by means of "Climate Olympics". For instance, platforms aiming to coordinate scarce resources could help unleash the huge potential of the circular and sharing economy, which is still largely untapped. With the commitment to an open data strategy, governments and industry would increasingly make data available for science and public use, to create suitable conditions for an efficient information and innovation ecosystem that keeps pace with the challenges of our world.

This could be encouraged by tax cuts, in the same way as they were granted in some countries for the use of environmentally friendly technologies. Thirdly, building a "digital nervous system," run by the citizens, could open up new opportunities of the Internet of Things for everyone and provide real-time data measurements available to all. If we want to use resources in a more sustainable way and slow down climate change, we need to measure the positive and negative side effects of our interactions with others and our environment.

By using appropriate feedback loops, systems could be influenced in such a way that they achieve the desired outcomes by means of self-organization. For this to succeed we would need various incentive and exchange systems, available to all economic, political and social innovators. This could create entirely new markets and, therefore, also the basis for new prosperity. Unleashing the virtually unlimited potential of the digital economy would be greatly promoted by a pluralistic financial system for example, functionally differentiated currencies and new regulations for the compensation for inventions.

To better cope with the complexity and diversity of our future world and to turn it into an advantage, we will require personal digital assistants. These digital assistants will also benefit from developments in the field of artificial intelligence. In the future it can be expected that numerous networks combining human and artificial intelligence will be flexibly built and reconfigured, as needed. However, in order for us to retain control of our lives, these networks should be controlled in a distributed way.

In particular, one would also have to be able to log in and log out as desired. A "Wikipedia of Cultures" could eventually help to coordinate various activities in a highly diverse world and to make them compatible with each other. It would make the mostly implicit success principles of the world's cultures explicit, so that they could be combined in new ways. A "Cultural Genome Project" like this would also be a kind of peace project, because it would raise public awareness for the value of sociocultural diversity.

Global companies have long known that culturally diverse and multidisciplinary teams are more successful than homogeneous ones. However, the framework needed to efficiently collate knowledge and ideas from lots of people in order to create collective intelligence is still missing in many places.

To change this, the provision of online deliberation platforms would be highly useful. They could also create the framework needed to realize an upgraded, digital democracy, with greater participatory opportunities for citizens. This is important, because many of the problems facing the world today can only be managed with contributions from civil society.

Big data, meet Big Brother: China invents the digital totalitarian state. The worrying implications of its social-credit project. The Economist December 17, Harris, S. Tong, V. Volodymyr, M. In: Nature, , S. Frey, B. Springer, Gigerenzer, G. In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 3 , S. Grassegger, H. Ich habe nur gezeigt, dass es die Bombe gibt [I have only shown the bomb exists]. Das Magazin 3. Hafen, E.

In: Methods of Information in Medicine 53 2 , S. Helbing, D. CreateSpace, In: Nature , S. Zicari, R. Frankfurt Big Data Lab, Zwitter, A. Thanks to Big Data, we can now take better, evidence-based decisions.

However, the principle of top-down control increasingly fails, since the complexity of society grows in an explosive way as we go on networking our world. Distributed control approaches will become ever more important. Only by means of collective intelligence will it be possible to find appropriate solutions to the complexity challenges of our world. Our society is at a crossroads: If ever more powerful algorithms would be controlled by a few decision-makers and reduce our self-determination, we would fall back in a Feudalism 2.

Now, however, we have the chance to choose the path to digital democracy or democracy 2. How would behavioural and social control impact our lives? The concept of a Citizen Score, which is now being implemented in China, gives an idea.

There, all citizens are rated on a one-dimensional ranking scale. Everything they do gives plus or minus points. This is not only aimed at mass surveillance. The score depends on an individual's clicks on the Internet and their politically-correct conduct or not, and it determines their credit terms, their access to certain jobs, and travel visas.

Therefore, the Citizen Score is about behavioural and social control. Even the behaviour of friends and acquaintances affects this score, i. Were similar principles to spread in democratic countries, it would be ultimately irrelevant whether it was the state or influential companies that set the rules. In both cases, the pillars of democracy would be directly threatened:. Such a control of society would turn away from self-responsible citizens to individuals as underlings, leading to a Feudalism 2.

This is diametrically opposed to democratic values. It is therefore time for an Enlightenment 2. This requires democratic technologies: information systems, which are compatible with democratic principles - otherwise they will destroy our society. He who has large amounts of data can manipulate people in subtle ways.

But even benevolent decision-makers may do more wrong than right, says Dirk Helbing. Proponents of Nudging argue that people do not take optimal decisions and it is, therefore, necessary to help them. This school of thinking is known as paternalism. However, Nudging does not choose the way of informing and persuading people.

It rather exploits psychological weaknesses in order to bring us to certain behaviours, i. The scientific approach underlying this approach is called "behaviorism", which is actually long out of date. Decades ago, Burrhus Frederic Skinner conditioned rats, pigeons and dogs by rewards and punishments for example, by feeding them or applying painful electric shocks.

Today one tries to condition people in similar ways. Instead of in a Skinner box, we are living in a "filter bubble": with personalized information our thinking is being steered. With personalized prices, we may be even punished or rewarded, for example, for un desired clicks on the Internet. The increasing amount of personal information about us, which is often collected without our consent, reveals what we think, how we feel and how we can be manipulated. This insider information is exploited to manipulate us to make choices that we would otherwise not make, to buy some overpriced products or those that we do not need, or perhaps to give our vote to a certain political party.

However, Big Nudging is not suitable to solve many of our problems. This is particularly true for the complexity-related challenges of our world. Although already 90 countries use Nudging, it has not reduced our societal problems - on the contrary. Global warming is progressing. World peace is fragile, and terrorism is on the rise. Cybercrime explodes, and also the economic and debt crisis is not solved in many countries.

There is also no solution to the inefficiency of financial markets, as Nudging guru Richard Thaler recently admitted. In his view, if the state would control financial markets, this would rather aggravate the problem.

But why should one then control our society in a top-down way, which is even more complex than a financial market? Society is not a machine, and complex systems cannot be steered like a car. This can be understood by discussing another complex system: our bodies.

To cure diseases, one needs to take the right medicine at the right time in the right dose. Many treatments also have serious side and interaction effects. The same, of course, is expected to apply to social interventions by Big Nudging. Often is not clear in advance what would be good or bad for society. Therefore, chances are to cause more harm than good by Big Nudging. Furthermore, there is no measure, which is good for all people.

For example, in recent decades, we have seen food advisories changing all the time. Many people also suffer from food intolerances, which can even be fatal. Mass screenings for certain kinds of cancer and other diseases are now being viewed quite critically, because the side effects of wrong diagnoses often outweigh the benefits. Therefore, if one decided to use Big Nudging, a solid scientific basis, transparency, ethical evaluation and democratic control would be really crucial.

The measures taken would have to guarantee statistically significant improvements, and the side effects would have to be acceptable. Users should be made aware of them in analogy to a medical leaflet , and the treated persons would have to have the last word.

In addition, applying one and the same measure to the entire population would not be good. But far too little is known to take appropriate individual measures. Not only is it important for society to apply different treatments in order to maintain diversity, but correlations regarding what measure to take in what particular context matter as well.

For the functioning of society it is essential that people apply different roles, which are fitting to the respective situation they are in. Big Nudging is far from being able to deliver this. Current Big-Data-based personalization rather creates new problems such as discrimination. For instance, if we make health insurance rates dependent on certain diets, then Jews, Muslims and Christians, women and men will have to pay different rates.

Thus, a bunch of new problems is arising. Richard Thaler is, therefore, not getting tired to emphasize that Nudging should only be used in beneficial ways. As a prime example, how to use Nudging, he mentions a GPS-based route guidance system. This, however, is turned on and off by the user. The user also specifies the respective goal. The digital assistant then offers several alternatives, between which the user can freely choose. After that, the digital assistant supports the user as good as it can in reaching the goal and in making better decisions.

This would certainly be the right approach to improve people's behaviours, but today the spirit of Big Nudging is quite different from this. Europe must guarantee citizens a right to a digital copy of all data about them Right to a Copy , says Ernst Hafen. A first step towards data democracy would be to establish cooperative banks for personal data that are owned by the citizens rather than by corporate shareholders. Medicine can profit from health data. However, access to personal data must be controlled the persons the data subjects themselves.

In Europe, we like to point out that we live in free, democratic societies. We have almost unconsciously become dependent on multinational data firms, however, whose free services we pay for with our own data. However, thus far nobody has managed to extract the maximum use from personal data because it lies in many different data sets. Google and Facebook may know more about our health than our doctor, but even these firms cannot collate all of our data, because they rightly do not have access to our patient files, shopping receipts, or information about our genomic make-up.

In contrast to other assets, data can be copied with almost no associated cost. Every person should have the right to obtain a copy of all their personal data. In this way, they can control the use and aggregation of their data and decide themselves whether to give access to friends, another doctor, or the scientific community. The emergence of mobile health sensors and apps means that patients can contribute significant medical insights. By recording their bodily health on their smartphones, such as medical indicators and the side effects of medications, they supply important data which make it possible to observe how treatments are applied, evaluate health technologies, and conduct evidence-based medicine in general.

It is also a moral obligation to give citizens access to copies of their data and allow them to take part in medical research, because it will save lives and make health care more affordable. In this way, citizens can use their data to play an active role in the global data economy.

If they can store copies of their data in non-profit, citizen-controlled, cooperative institutions, a large portion of the economic value of personal data could be returned to society. The cooperative institutions would act as trustees in managing the data of their members. This would result in the democratization of the market for personal data and the end of digital dependence.

In order to deal with future technology in a responsible way, it is necessary that each one of us can participate in the decision-making process, argues Bruno S. Frey from the University of Basel. How can responsible innovation be promoted effectively? Appeals to the public have little, if any, effect if the institutions or rules shaping human interactions are not designed to incentivize and enable people to meet these requests.

Several types of institutions should be considered. Most importantly, society must be decentralized , following the principle of subsidiarity. Three dimensions matter. These types of decentralization will continue to be of major importance in the digital society of the future. In addition, citizens must have the opportunity to directly participate in decision-making on particular issues by means of popular referenda.

In the discourse prior to such a referendum, all relevant arguments should be brought forward and stated in an organized fashion. The various proposals about how to solve a particular problem should be compared and narrowed down to those which seem to be most promising, and integrated insomuch as possible during a mediation process. Finally, a referendum needs to take place, which serves to identify the most viable solution for the local conditions viable in the sense that it enjoys a diverse range of support in the electorate.

Nowadays, on-line deliberation tools can efficiently support such processes. Another way to implement the ten proposals would be to create new, unorthodox institutions. This lateral thinker would be tasked with developing counter-arguments and alternatives to each proposal.

Another unorthodox measure would be to choose among the alternatives considered reasonable during the discourse process using random decision-making mechanisms. Such an approach increases the chance that unconventional and generally disregarded proposals and ideas would be integrated into the digital society of the future. When technology determines how we see the world, there is a threat of misuse and deception.

Thus, innovation must reflect our values, argues Jeroen van den Hoven. Germany was recently rocked by an industrial scandal of global proportions. The revelations led to the resignation of the CEO of one of the largest car manufacturers, a grave loss of consumer confidence, a dramatic slump in share price and economic damage for the entire car industry. The compensation payments will be in the range of billions of Euro. The background to the scandal was a situation whereby VW and other car manufacturers used manipulative software which could detect the conditions under which the environmental compliance of a vehicle was tested.

The software algorithm altered the behavior of the engine so that it emitted fewer pollutant exhaust fumes under test conditions than in normal circumstances. In this way, it cheated the test procedure. The full reduction of emissions occurred only during the tests, but not in normal use. In the 21st Century, we urgently need to address the question of how we can implement ethical standards technologically. Similarly, algorithms, computer code, software, models and data will increasingly determine what we see in the digital society, and what are choices are with regard to health insurance, finance and politics.

This brings new risks for the economy and society. In particular, there is a danger of deception. Thus, it is important to understand that our values are embodied in the things we create. If these values are self-serving, discriminatory or contrary to the ideals of freedom and personal privacy, this will damage our society. Thus, in the 21st Century we must urgently address the question of how we can implement ethical standards technologically.

If we lack the motivation to develop the technological tools, science and institutions necessary to align the digital world with our shared values, the future looks very bleak. Thankfully, the European Union has invested in an extensive research and development program for responsible innovation. Furthermore, the EU countries which passed the Lund and Rome Declarations emphasized that innovation needs to be carried out responsibly.

Among other things, this means that innovation should be directed at developing intelligent solutions to societal problems, which can harmonize values such as efficiency, security and sustainability. Genuine innovation does not involve deceiving people into believing that their cars are sustainable and efficient.

Genuine innovation means creating technologies that can actually satisfy these requirements. Rather than letting intelligent technology diminish our brainpower, we should learn to better control it, says Gerd Gigerenzer —beginning in childhood. The digital revolution provides an impressive array of possibilities: thousands of apps, the Internet of Things, and almost permanent connectivity to the world.

But in the excitement, one thing is easily forgotten: innovative technology needs competent users who can control it rather than be controlled by it. One of my doctoral students sits at his computer and appears to be engrossed in writing his dissertation. At the same time his e-mail inbox is open, all day long.

He is in fact waiting to be interrupted. It's easy to recognize how many interruptions he had in the course of the day by looking at the flow of his writing. Fortunately, my phone shows me the text as a pop up at first… so I don't have to do too much looking while I'm driving. That young woman is risking a car accident. Her smart phone has taken control of her behavior—as is the case for the 20 to 30 percent of Germans who also text while driving. During the parliamentary elections in India in , the largest democratic election in the world with over million potential voters, there were three main candidates: N.

Modi, A. Kejriwal, and R. In a study, undecided voters could find out more information about these candidates using an Internet search engine. However, the participants did not know that the web pages had been manipulated: For one group, more positive items about Modi popped up on the first page and negative ones later on. The other groups experienced the same for the other candidates. This and similar manipulative procedures are common practice on the Internet. It is estimated that for candidates who appear on the first page thanks to such manipulation, the number of votes they receive from undecided voters increases by 20 percentage points.

In each of these cases, human behavior is controlled by digital technology. Losing control is nothing new, but the digital revolution has increased the possibility of that happening. What can we do? There are three competing visions. One is techno-paternalism, which replaces flawed human judgment with algorithms. The distracted doctoral student could continue readings his emails and use thesis-writing software; all he would need to do is input key information on the topic.

Such algorithms would solve the annoying problem of plagiarism scandals by making them an everyday occurrence. Although still in the domain of science fiction, human judgment is already being replaced by computer programs in many areas. The BabyConnect app, for instance, tracks the daily development of infants—height, weight, number of times it was nursed, how often its diapers were changed, and much more—while newer apps compare the baby with other users' children in a real-time database.

For parents, their baby becomes a data vector, and normal discrepancies often cause unnecessary concern. The second vision is known as "nudging". Rather than letting the algorithm do all the work, people are steered into a particular direction, often without being aware of it.

The experiment on the elections in India is an example of that. This knowledge about human behavior is taken advantage of by manipulating the order of results so that the positive ones about a particular candidate or a particular commercial product appear on the first page.

In countries such as Germany, where web searches are dominated by one search engine Google , this leads to endless possibilities to sway voters. Like techno-paternalism, nudging takes over the helm. But there is a third possibility.

My vision is risk literacy, where people are equipped with the competencies to control media rather than be controlled by it. In general, risk literacy concerns informed ways of dealing with risk-related areas such as health, money, and modern technologies. Digital risk literacy means being able to take advantage of digital technologies without becoming dependent on or manipulated by them.

That is not as hard as it sounds. My doctoral student has since learned to switch on his email account only three times a day, morning, noon, and evening, so that he can work on his dissertation without constant interruption. Learning digital self-control needs to begin as a child, at school and also from the example set by parents. Some paternalists may scoff at the idea, stating that humans lack the intelligence and self-discipline to ever become risk literate.

But centuries ago the same was said about learning to read and write—which a majority of people in industrial countries can now do. In the same way, people can learn to deal with risks more sensibly. To achieve this, we need to radically rethink strategies and invest in people rather than replace or manipulate them with intelligent technologies.

In the 21st century, we need less paternalism and nudging and more informed, critical, and risk-savvy citizens. It's time to snatch away the remote control from technology and take our lives into our own hands. The power of data can be used for good and bad purposes.

A petition against automated weapon systems was signed by , people and an open letter recently published by MIT calls for a new, inclusive approach to the coming digital society. We must realize that big data, like any other tool, can be used for good and bad purposes. In this sense, the decision by the European Court of Justice against the Safe Harbour Agreement on human rights grounds is understandable. States, international organizations and private actors now employ big data in a variety of spheres.

It is important that all those who profit from big data are aware of their moral responsibility. For this reason, the Data for Humanity Initiative was established, with the goal of disseminating an ethical code of conduct for big data use. This initiative advances five fundamental ethical principles for big data users:. The digital footprint that everyone now leaves behind exposes individuals, social groups and society as a whole to a certain degree of transparency and vulnerability. Those who have access to the insights afforded by big data must not harm third parties.

Ensure that data is used in such a way that the results will foster the peaceful coexistence of humanity. The selection of content and access to data influences the world view of a society. Peaceful coexistence is only possible if data scientists are aware of their responsibility to provide even and unbiased access to data. Use data to help people in need. In addition to being economically beneficial, innovation in the sphere of big data could also create additional social value.

In the age of global connectivity, it is now possible to create innovative big data tools which could help to support people in need. Use data to protect nature and reduce pollution of the environment. One of the biggest achievements of big data analysis is the development of efficient processes and synergy effects. Big data can only offer a sustainable economic and social future if such methods are also used to create and maintain a healthy and stable natural environment.

Use data to eliminate discrimination and intolerance and to create a fair system of social coexistence. Social media has created a strengthened social network. This can only lead to long-term global stability if it is built on the principles of fairness, equality and justice.

To conclude, we would also like to draw attention to how interesting new possibilities afforded by big data could lead to a better future: "As more data become less costly and technology breaks barriers to acquisition and analysis, the opportunity to deliver actionable information for civic purposes grows. This might be termed the 'common good' challenge for big data. In the end, it is important to understand the turn to big data as an opportunity to do good and as a hope for a better future.

In the digital age, machines steer everyday life to a considerable extent already. We should, therefore, think twice before we share our personal data, says expert Yvonne Hofstetter. If Norbert Wiener had experienced the digital era, for him it would have been the land of plenty.

In history, the world never produced such amount of data and information as it does today. Control refers to the control of machines as well as of individuals or entire social systems like military alliances, financial markets or, pointing to the 21st century, even the electorate. Its major premise: keeping the world under surveillance to collect data.

Connecting people and things to the Internet of Everything is a perfect to way to obtain the required mass data as input to cybernetic control strategies.

Consider, compare and contrast essay music topics apologise

Democracy is an ideal many people have struggled for. Equally adept—and prominent—in academia, the think tank world, and policy circles, Diamond is a professor at Stanford University, the author or editor of dozens of books on democracy, and the. Status: This exact quotation has not been found in any of the writings. Consociational Democracy This model, as stated previously, is designed around a state or country with deep divisions, particularly along ethnic or religious lines.

He formulated two explanations in the correlation of economy and democracy. Is this statement truly a reality? There has been a wave of reforms in recent years, restoring the right to vote to formerly disenfranchised persons. A liberal democracy is a political system that is composed both of liberal and democratic political values.

Democracy and Capitalism Those who live democracy a chance of survival essay in America enjoy freedom because America is a democratic nation in which the people hold the power. See Global Gini index Distribution of family income ranking by country. Elite repression: limitations on dissent, speech, and assembly in the name of law and order? The countries that had become dictatorships were more recent countries that.

They enjoy certain rights which are very essential for any human being to live freely and happily. The essential element of democracy would be the people.. Democracy is known as the finest form of government. CIA Factbook for Quotation: "An educated citizenry is a vital requisite for our survival as a free people. Description of democracy and dictatorship. One must consider the fact the United States is also a capitalist society and this has changed the face of democracy Even though holding the House will be tough, Democrats have a good landscape for retaining the Senate in and being able to confirm judges.

The truth remains, however, that during this period, President Jackson vetoed a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States of America, infringed on the rights of Native Americans. Nom complet. Site web. Enregistrer mon nom, mon e-mail et mon site web dans le navigateur pour mon prochain commentaire.

Vous lisez Democracy a chance of survival essay. Accueil Boutique Democracy a chance of survival essay. In a bid to rescues his country from the ill- effects of the Great depression, the then President of the US, F. Roosevelt initiated his New Deal programme.

Many feared that democracy in the US was in peril. But the situation was saved, as two- thirds of the New deal was invalidated by the Supreme Court. It was only as democratic principles began to disseminate in the nineteenth century, and as democratic governments began to be set up in the twentieth century especially after the Second World Wad , that the role of the judiciary came to be increasingly emphasised in the consolidation and perpetuation of the democratic institutions an democratic norms.

Human passion for freedom is great, but freedom has often been limited by the ruling authorities throughout history. However, there comes a stage when even the bare minimum of freedom needed by an individual is sought to be snatched by those in power, because this power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual or a small group of people.

The experiences of history convinced the people that the democratic way was the only and to serve his interests. However, as selfishness, greed and passion for power are inherent in human nature, it was feared that even a democratic leader may turn authoritarian and act arbitrarily at times.

As legislature and executive are generally dominated by the some political party. In that situation, the judiciary remains the only institution to which individuals may appeal for executive enactment or action to find out whether it is antipeople or not.

Though every form of government has a constitution of some sort, in a democracy the constriction is more steadfastly abided by because of it paramount is more steadfastly abided by because of its paramount nature in the political set- up. The judiciary is the institution that sees that the constitution is not ignored or disgraced.

Also, there are instances when a constructional deadlock or dilemma renders the government helpless and when different interpretations are possible of a constitutional provision. The judiciary here steps in as the expert and the authority on the constitution to defuse the crisis. Lastly , as democracy leaves sufficient scope for different opinions and beliefs, sometimes there may surface two major and almost equally forceful opinions contradicting and conflicting with each other, holding out little chance of compromise.

The judiciary being regarded, and respected, as independent and impartial, its verdict is generally accepted be all the parties, and the crisis is resolved. Several instances can be cited of the leaders having been dethroned or having had to abdicate because of judicial verdicts. In Japan, Mr Nakasone and others had to resign when they ere found guilty by the court in Bangladesh, the ex-president Mr Ershad was thrown in prison because of judicial pronouncements. The judiciary also takes over the reins of power, though rarely, in case of a political vacuum or crisis as in Pakistan after the resignation of both president Ishaq Khan and the prime minister Nawaz Sharif.

In India , too, the judiciary has many landmark judgements to its credit. For example, the election of Mrs Indira Gandhi was declared void in by the Allahabad High Court, after which she ill- advisedly imposed national emergency. Nevertheless, the role of the judiciary is generally limited because of the balance of power tilting towards legislation in most of the democratic systems and also because of the legislature, or sometimes the executive head of the State, having power to make appointments to the judiciary.

The debate on this issue has been going on for a long time and till now there has been no unanimity on the least defective procedure in such appointments. There are problems that adversely affect judicial independence in India. The politics of supersession, transfer, demotion, extension of term on monthly basis as ad hoc judges, non-confirmation of the High Court judges among other things, are disturbing trends in a democracy.

There are also examples where the judges have been threatened publicly by ministers and legislators. Again, whenever the judiciary declares any law passed by the legislature as constitutionally invalid, there has been a hue and cry in the Parliament.

The court verdicts are often nullified by constitutional amendment. All these odds before the Indian judiciary notwithstanding. A typical verdict was in the Keshavanand Bharati case because in this case the Supreme Court held that the Constitution has a certain basic structure which cannot be amended. Again , in the Minerva Mills case, by striking down clause 4 and 5 of Article , the Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has rightly restored the doctrine of judicial Review which the 42 nd Constitution Amendment Act, had very substantially curtailed.

More recently we have had striking verdicts on the anti- defection acts. In general the judiciary is in a sense weaker than Parliament, which claims to be the representative of the people, the real sovereign in democracy. It is true that the judiciary has to depend on the executive for the implementation of its decisions but it does not mean that the executive of even those sitting in the legislature can ignore such decisions.

After all, in a democracy the members of the legislature and the executive have to go periodically to the people at the hustings who have high respect for the judiciary in spite of occasional aberrations.


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