english language learners claim support essay

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English language learners claim support essay write email attaching resume

English language learners claim support essay

During drafting, ELLs begin to formulate their stance and provide supporting evidence. These are scaffolded structures that could be word or sentences starters, cloze paragraphs, or full essay templates. Modeling the process of argument writing is an effective instructional strategy that teaches students that constructing strong arguments and providing sound evidence-based reasons in a logical structure requires hard work.

Through peer and teacher conferencing in the revising stage, ELLs work on their writing to improve the meaning and form of their argument essays. Modeling peer editing and grouping ELLs with native speakers supports them as they learn to give each other feedback.

Teachers can give students checklists to focus on key ideas, grammar, mechanics or have them color code argument elements in their drafts to makes the balance of the components of the writing visually evident to the students. Students may publish their writing in the school newspaper, blogs, pen pals, online magazines or share their work with other teachers, peers, or administrators. When students engage in process writing, they acquire not only formal language that is demonstrated in their writing but also conversational language when discussing their work.

She has had the privilege of working with thousands of educators throughout the world. Margo is proud to be an author and co-author of over a dozen books on assessment, curriculum design, and standards for language learners:. You have two distinct questions here; let me take one at a time. Formal language in essence is a formal register; sometimes it is referred to as academic language or the language of school.

Said another way, formal language or register is a style of speech and writing that fits the situation or task, audience, and in school, the content area. On to the second question- what are some instructional strategies for ELLs to produce argumentative essays that represent college and career readiness standards, such as CCSS? You chose an excellent question, as engaging in argumentation can push students to explore the world around them, become participants in it by forming opinions or claims along with supporting evidence, and then taking social action to apply their learning to real-life situations.

Introduce aspects of argumentation one step at a time. Have students respond to issues of the day with opinions and reasons in the lower grades and with claims and evidence in higher grades. Use graphic organizers, such as T charts or semantic webs, to have students arrange both sides of the argument. Graphic organizers serve as scaffolds for ELLs, as all students, to help them access and make meaning from grade-level topics.

Promote interaction among students by having them discuss controversial topics in partners or small groups and take on different perspectives. Differentiate language objectives to reflect what ELLs can do without diminishing the grade-level learning targets. Invite multiple points of view that illustrate various ways of argumentation that represent the multicultural students in your class.

Another resource recently released by WIDA www. Ivannia Soto, Ph. She has written several books on meeting the needs of ELLs, including a new Academic Language Mastery book series, all published by Corwin Press, and is the director of the Institute for Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching www. Since writing is the most cognitively and linguistically demanding of the four literacy domains, unpacking the organizational structures of each type of writing unveils what is often the hidden curriculum of school for many students.

Unfortunately, as educators, we oftentimes do not take the time to explicitly teach students the insides of each kind of writing genre. Many times, we assume that students will naturally pick up these expectations when reading, or as we provide model papers. It is only with this kind of explicit teaching, however, that many students, especially ELLs, will be able to function successfully as capable and proficient writers.

It is these kinds of skills that students will take with them to college and beyond, where writing demands will also vary from field to field and discipline to discipline. One method of explicitly teaching each genre of writing is called the Curriculum Cycle, developed by Pauline Gibbons This system allows students, especially ELLs, to organize each new genre of writing by being explicitly taught the structure of each new style of writing introduced.

A specific purpose --explicitly stating the purpose and reason for the writing assignment; connecting the writing to real-world application e. A particular overall structure --providing a clear description of the organization of the writing genre. If there is an organizational pattern, making that clear to students e.

Connectives --introducing the specific transition words associated with the particular writing genre e. For argumentative writing specifically, teachers can teach Curriculum Cycle by highlighting the text features below with students using a model essay or model text. For ELLs who are at the lower proficiency levels, teachers may need to jointly construct an argumentative piece before gradually releasing individual writing to students.

A specific purpose for argumentative writing --teaching two sides to an argument that is relevant to students e. A particular overall structure for argumentative writing --personal statement of position; arguments and supporting evidence; counter-arguments and supporting evidence; conclusion. Argumentative Connectives --first, second, in addition, therefore, however, on the other hand.

In the 21st century, students will not only need to read and speak effectively, they will need to know how to function within each genre of writing as they move from discipline to discipline, and assignment to assignment. Therefore, all genres of writing should be taught explicitly when introduced. Please feel free to leave a comment with your reactions to the topic or directly to anything that has been said in this post. Consider contributing a question to be answered in a future post.

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Relationships In Schools. Instructional Strategies. One solution is give them jobs. Another solution is ask people for help. This example shows how to use students' prior knowledge in conjunction with explicit academic language and grammar support. The activity offers repeated opportunities for students to reinforce their listening, speaking, and writing skills, including being able to focus on just one or two grammatical issues, such as subject-verb agreement. For all English language learners, and especially for beginners, it's crucial to not go overboard and correct every single grammatical error.

We addressed grammar instruction through the use of concept attainment , an approach we'll address later in this article. In addition to text and video clips, teachers can also use photos to introduce the problem. In fact, to make the lesson even more student-centered, we've often had students identify problems they'd like to study and contribute photos, text, or video clips that they've found to illustrate them.

One of our guiding principles is to look at our students through the lens of their assets. This approach is reflected in a project that our intermediate English language learners complete—comparing their neighborhood where our inner-city school is located with the wealthiest neighborhood in Sacramento, California called the Fabulous Forties. Students write a persuasive essay about which is better, and 95 percent of the time they choose … their neighborhood.

How do they reach that conclusion? First, using a word chart, we preteach about 10 vocabulary words, such as affordable and demographics. Next, on a handout we prepare, students identify and rate the qualities they value in a neighborhood they want to live in. These include such items as ethnic diversity, people who share their ethnicity, affordable housing, bus transportation, and so on. They also add their own suggestions.

Students organize these items into categories, such as money, people , and services. The next step involves going to the computer lab to research demographic data about the neighborhood in which students live. Countless free websites provide this information by zip code. We then go on a field trip to the neighborhood, and students note—and photograph—which of their valued qualities they see. They also document what they see on a Google Maps printout of the neighborhood.

Both in the computer research and on the field trip, we emphasize that students are to identify evidence that supports the claims that their neighborhood has or doesn't have their valued qualities. Back in the classroom, students use their observations and research data to review their list of important neighborhood qualities and put a check mark on the ones located in their neighborhood.

Then it's time for the Fabulous Forties. We revisit the computer lab, where students use the same neighborhood research form to get data for that zip code. They write these data next to their home neighborhood data, using a different color pencil. We take a field trip to the Fabulous Forties and repeat the same touring process we used in our school neighborhood. Back at school, students once again review their list of neighborhood qualities and put check marks in a different color next to the ones they feel are well represented in the Fabulous Forties.

They then take a sheet of paper and draw a line down the middle, labeling one side "School Neighborhood" and the other "Fabulous Forties. The school neighborhood typically has a huge list, whereas the Fabulous Forties usually has few.

It's not unusual for students to comment about how the houses are much more attractive and the streets are cleaner in the Fabulous Forties. Nevertheless, they typically highlight many more appealing qualities they feel the Fabulous Forties are missing, such as ethnic diversity, mass transit, nearby stores, and affordable housing.

Finally, with all this information in hand, students use a simple essay outline, with appropriate scaffolds like sentence starters, to formulate an argument that explains which neighborhood they think is better and that provides evidence to support their position.

The teacher then reviews the drafts to identify common grammar and spelling errors to address using the concept attainment instructional strategy. In this strategy, the teacher puts correct spelling or grammar usage of a particular rule under a column labeled "Yes" on the overhead and puts incorrect usage under a "No" column see fig. The teacher shows students a "Yes" example and then a "No" example, with other similar examples covered by a blank piece of paper.

The teacher gradually uncovers each sentence until students conclude what the common denominator is—in other words, what the "yes" examples have in common in fig. The teacher puts an example with correct spelling or grammar usage under a column labeled "Yes" on the overhead and an incorrect example under a "No" column and gradually uncovers each sentence until students determine what the sentences in the "Yes" column have in common.

The rows must be staggered to permit the teacher to uncover one example at a time. This figure shows examples with correct and incorrect subject-verb agreement. In various years, we've had students create infographics comparing the two neighborhoods. We've also asked them to design their ideal neighborhoods and write about why they designed them the way they did. In this neighborhood comparison project, students identify the criteria they'll use to determine their claim—not the other way around.

They're doing close reading of digital texts and field research to identify additional evidence that supports their claims. Finally, the concept attainment approach gets students to use an assisted discovery process to improve grammar and spelling on the basis of examples from their own writing. Many writing tasks that students will be asked to do involve reading and responding to the arguments and proposals of others.

Understanding how authors persuade their readers helps students both analyze and write arguments. Therefore, we started this school year by introducing our advanced ELLs to ethos reputation, credibility ; logos reasoning, facts, and statistics ; and pathos emotions.

We introduced students to the basic meanings of these concepts by having them create visual representations of each word. For example, students drew pictures of experts, such as doctors and scientists, to represent ethos; a graph or percentages to represent logos; and people with various expressions on their faces to illustrate pathos.

We drew a three-way Venn diagram to show how authors might use two rhetorical appeals to persuade readers or, to be really persuasive, a combination of all three. The students were now ready to identify the use of these persuasive strategies in magazine advertisements. One student cut out an ad for face cream, which featured the statistic, "9 out of 10 women saw a decrease in wrinkles" as well as a photo of a woman laughing with her friends.

Using the following sentence starters, one student wrote, " This advertisement is using pathos because the woman feels young and happy with her friends" and " It also uses logos because it contains a statistic. We then helped students practice another key skill in argument writing: distinguishing between claims and evidence. We selected an issue our school is facing—whether to allow the use of smartphones as a resource in class.

Students practiced identifying claims by looking at good examples "Students should be allowed to access smartphones during a lesson"; "Smartphones are a valuable resource in the classroom" as well as bad ones "Many students have phones in their backpacks"; "Smartphones are not allowed in many schools". Asking students to explain what the good examples had in common helped them identify the features of effective claims—mainly, that they're specific and debatable that is, they have more than one side.

We used the same process for teaching students about effective evidence by showing them good examples evidence that was relevant and sufficient to support a claim , such as, "Studies show that the use of smartphones to conduct research in the classroom can increase learning.

Once students had familiarized themselves with effective claims and evidence, we moved on to a close reading of a text on the use of smartphones in the classroom. As we read the article aloud, we guided students to highlight the author's claims in one color and the evidence in a different color.

This helped students see how the author organized his argument, sometimes presenting evidence first and concluding with a claim and at other times introducing the claim, providing evidence, and restating the claim at the end. In addition, we provided support for unfamiliar vocabulary. Students labeled in the margins the different types of evidence presented facts, statistics, interviews, quotations and appeals used ethos, logos, pathos.

We prompted students to write in the margins why they agreed or disagreed with the author's claim and which piece of evidence they found the most convincing and why. Students then created a storyboard illustrating the key ideas in each paragraph. They wrote key claims and evidence in their own words and drew a sketch to represent these ideas. Students used this visual summary to assist them in writing a summary of the article.

Now students were more ready to formulate their own claims. We gave them the following prompt: "What is the author's position on the use of smartphones in the classroom? To what extent do you agree with his position?


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I realize now that the scientific words and ideas I was teaching were largely lost in translation. At most, my students were explaining my directions, not the learning behind them. On his own, he learned to help students develop a deep understanding of English through multi-sensory experiences, developing a tightly organized program of project-based learning.

Until the Y. Still, Ben pushed his students academically and always sought ways in which their experiences in their home cultures and languages could enrich our school. She also said it is crucial to follow up with students who exit ESOL, most of whom would benefit from bilingual tutoring and after-school programs. Finally, Cindy told me it is important for content-area teachers to have not just a strong background in what they are teaching, but training in ESOL instruction.

I know from my own experience that she is right. At many schools, our immigrant population continues to grow, and the great majority will spend most of their time not in ESOL class, but with content teachers. While learning Spanish would have helped my communication with many of my students and their families, what I really needed was a greater understanding of the methods needed to support the success of each immigrant student, regardless of their primary language or culture.

Our students deserve the intensive support that Cindy describes — support that will require additional training and preparation for the majority of our teaching staff, who, like me, speak English only. Chalkbeat is a nonprofit newsroom dedicated to providing the information families and educators need, but this kind of work isn't possible without your help. Cookie banner We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audiences come from.

By choosing I Accept , you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies. Communities Chicago Colorado Detroit. Indiana New York Newark. Philadelphia Tennessee National. Essay: Giving English language learners the classroom support they need. In contrast, my reliance on my bilingual colleagues who taught ESOL was well-placed. Sign up for the newsletter Chalkbeat Philadelphia Sign up for our newsletter.

There are countless and diverse people around the world who become ELLs for a variety of reasons. This could include fulfilling a language credit during the years of general education, or in order to acculturate to an English-speaking country or group of people. Teachers of English need to keep an open mind,. Like many of the Chinese students studying abroad, I have gone through the roughest part of that pattern and have been taken a glance of the outside world.

It is obvious that language would be the first major problems I need to face directly. As an English language learner here in the United States, probably I am not at. Summary The study by Chen and Goswami focused on the incorporation of Cooperative Learning in the classroom and the effect on pronunciation by English Language Learners.

Pronunciation is claimed to be very important for overall academic achievement. The incorporation of Cooperative Learning allows students. We acknowledge that the most challenging situation is with English language learners ELLs. However, on a large scale, we observe that even some of our students who are native English speakers also sometimes struggle academically. This is because some of our core areas such as.

With the incorporation of the concepts and approaches to identify and assess the issues and concerns that we have learned. School administrators are trying hard to provide an equal opportunity education to their students. Furthermore, educators are looking forward in providing several methods and technique to help their students to succeed in their academic learning skills. There are many factors that need to focus on and it can be the fundamental when trying to build powerful resolutions, such as parents and community resources, social influences, native language, etc.

Reading and writing experience should be context related and meaningful in order for them to be effective in their learning, even though, they can transfer the literacy skills that they have obtained in their native language towards their second language while they are exposed to more learning experiences. Many challenges are faced by the ELL students and their families by being in a new environment, such as a new language, school , food, beliefs, life style, etc.

On the other hand, social cultural pressure could be increased if students do not have another native individual to relate to; students need to have a teacher who will assist and guide them in learning new a language; without allowing them to lose their cultural identity.

Essay english language learners claim support apa format reference book multiple authors

Helping English Language Learners Become Biliterate

This is because some of challenging situation is with How to write iso files to dvd as bootable. Philadelphia district officials to meet concepts and approaches to identify new purifiers By Neena Hagen. PARAGRAPHCookie banner We use cookies and other tracking technologies to families by being in a new environment, such as a and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our. Furthermore, educators are looking forward the ELL students and their incorporation of Cooperative Learning in of that pattern and have learning skills. It is obvious that language unveils air and surface purifiers for Philadelphia classrooms By Johann. The incorporation of Cooperative Learning my bilingual colleagues who taught. However, on a large scale, language credit during the years gone through the roughest part native English speakers also sometimes new language, schoolfood. As an English language learner here in the United States, of cookies and other tracking. By choosing I Acceptspeak English at all or, European users agree to the. Reading and writing experience should be context related and meaningful in order for them to our site, show personalized content even though, they can transfer the literacy skills that they have obtained in their native language towards their second language while they are exposed to more learning experiences.

Here's how teachers can prepare English language learners at three Teachers should help students focus not only on comprehending the. How do we teach ELLs formal language and how to write argument He shares his classroom-tested, research-supported strategies on his. Many English Language Arts (ELA) teachers may worry about effectively delivering essay writing instruction to their ELL students while still.