The concept of leadership is as old as the birth of human on the earth. Our prophet Hazrat Mohammed S. W leaded us towards our goal that's Jannat. When organizations became an entity and many people get together to achieve a goal, a leader is needed to lead them. Dwight D. Eisenhower, "Leadership: the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.
In the light of history and the evaluation of organizations I can see that leadership is playing very important role in achieving goals and outputs. Looking into the quote of Ken I come to know why leadership is necessary for an organization to succeed.
As I see that leadership is an important part of our society and organizations but how to do leadership. To answer this question many management scientists and theorists defined some styles or taught to be followed. Kurt Lewin a popular management scientist first introduced the below leadership styles, Autocratic or authoritarian leadership style; in this style of leadership all the decisions are completely taken by the leader himself. No input is taken by the team or group.
The leader can be called as the dictator leader. The leader actually tells employee what to do and very closely supervises them. Robert N. Lussier, Christopher F. Achua Participative or democratic leadership style; in this style of leadership the leader involve the team in decision making process.
He consults them and then gives instructions. He work with employees what to do, and does not closely supervise them. Laissez-faire or free rein leadership style, in this style the leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself; the leader gives the maximum independence to subordinates, actually they are free to make their own policies and methods. The leader plays a passive role in group affairs, and usually takes part in decision when things are initiated by the team.
Philip Sadler Another popular style which I have taken in consideration was first introduced by James MacGregor Burns in ; he called it as the Transformational style. It was then extended by Bernard M. Bass in Bass also divided the transformational style into four components which are, Individualized Consideration, Intellectual Stimulation, Inspirational Motivation, and Idealized Influence. The characteristics which differentiate styles with each other are a leader who is dictator is autocratic leader, he takes hold of everything.
The democratic leader keeps his team with himself. He doesn't take hold of everything. The laissez free leader leave his team independent, he is a passive leader. The transformational leader is the visionary leader. He tries to impress his followers and then impose his things on them.
The leader should follow some specific style. That's why the leadership's style is very important. These styles are different according to situation, location, people and environment. The specific style can be good in a particular industry but can be a straight failure in other industry. There are different factor in different industries.
Organizational effectiveness is a very broad concept. It exists from the evaluation of organizations. People also try to define and measure effectiveness of the organization. In early days, Barnard said, the action is effective, if and only if it has accomplished its specific objective. As I said above the organizational effectiveness is a broad concept, the operational form was first given by Campbell et al.
It was the list of around 30 items for an organization. I have selected a few of them here is the list which I select from it. Employee morale, organizations competitive position, customer satisfaction, management satisfaction, ability to introduce organizational change, market share of the firm, level of impact on strategic outcomes. These are supposed to the dimensions of organizational effectiveness in IT industry locally.
Over the past 30 years, with the popularity of internet the evolution of IT organizations started and another industry is evolved some are now very big and renowned organizations such as Apple, Microsoft, IBM and Google. But with these companies the revolution of IT actually started and nowadays many companies are there which are working in same, Facebook is a social website and getting very popular these days.
In my opinion the leadership style in IT is different from all other industries. As I see with passage of time many companies came and destroy like Netscape first time introduced a Web browser but now the company has been vanished from scene. I started thinking about the impact of leadership as my professional career started. What I actually analyze that the leadership behavior has great impact on its follower.
I was looking into the progress of giant companies such as Apple. This means that the leadership of Steve making Apple more effective as whole. Steve is coming with some steps or things like that that is why the company is progressing robustly. The effectiveness of organization can be termed as how much the customer of organization trusts on it, how big the market share of organization in products and services and people are willing to use and work with the organization.
The example of Apple fits here that when person wants a classy thing he must buy Apple product. This shows the effectiveness of Apple. According to previous research leadership style is very important factor which affects the organizational effectiveness Min-Huei, Chien.
This tells us that the leadership style is related to the effectiveness of organization in IT industry as well. This urges me to study the leadership style or mixture of styles which are followed by them. Modify them according to our local industry and environment so that I also progress like them.
I am working in local IT sector, also worked with different companies, but when I compare them with big companies they are far away from them. So the rationale of my study is to decide a comprehensive style of leadership which progress the organizations in our local IT industry. According to definition of leadership the leadership style basically motivate people. Motivated people are more creative and productive and this makes the organization more effective as whole entity. As I think that leadership style has impact on organizational effectiveness.
But I specifically don't know what leadership styles are being used in IT industry so the aim and purpose of this study is to determine the leadership style or mixture of styles are used in IT industry globally and advice a leadership style for local IT industry. The significance of the study is to filter out the styles which are followed by big companies in the world in IT sector.
So the dissertation will provide a guide line for the people who owns as well as are starting an IT company in local market. In the study, I tried to innovate the thinking of current IT head. They will get an idea about better way of leading. The traits of good leadership in the field of software development will be explored with this study.
The result of this study will be some good things done by good leaders. The study will tell that how companies become so big that people are keen to work with the company. Q1: Is different leadership styles influence differently on organizational effectiveness?
If they influence differently then what is the direction of influence relationship for each leadership style? Q3: What are the common parameters on the basis of which one leadership style can be considered differently? The purpose of study was to determine the impact of leadership styles on organizational effectiveness in IT industry. Leadership style was measured using different leadership styles including Autocratic, Participative, Laissez-faire and Transformational styles.
The organizational effectiveness was measured by factors of Employee Morale, Organizations Competitive Position, Customer Satisfaction,. This chapter Literature Review provides the vital procedure of placing the study in its proper historic context. Just to fit study in its historical context, the literature review will start from the detail analysis of leadership theory and styles including Autocratic, Participative, Laissez-faire and Transformational.
Following the detailed discussion of leadership styles. Literature review will further proceed with analysis of organizational effectiveness. In , psychologist Kurt Lewin gathered a group of people to identify different styles of leadership that were authoritarian, democratic and laissez-fair leadership.
School children were assigned with each type of leader and researchers then noted the response of children against each style of leadership. From his perspective Authoritarian leaders, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what should be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. Children responded with more productivity and less creativity manner against this leadership. Furthermore Lewin's found that Participative leadership also known as Democratic leadership was generally an effective leadership style.
This kind of leader offered guidance to group members and also took input from other group members. Participative leaders involved group members in decision making ideas but sustain the final words over decision making process. This process kept group members motivated. Children in this group were less productive then authoritarian group but their contribution was of much higher quality.
On further proceeding with the study, Lewin investigated that children under delegation Laissez-Faire were the least productive of all three groups. Children in this group also made more demands on leader and showed little co-operation and were not independent as well. Laissez-Faire Leaders did not provide guidance to group members and leave decision making on team. This leadership is only suitable when team is very expert.
Burns first highlighted the Transformational leadership. From his point of view, Transformational leadership occurred when leader addressed team to shift their values and needs. They are concerned with followers' inspiration to achieve efficient performance. In , Bass extended the work of Burns and explained transformational leadership and its impact on organization effectiveness.
Bass focused on key leadership building factors such as Task orientation and relationship orientation and leadership functions like initiating structure and promoting change. In , Kuhnert and Lewis supported the work of Bass by their study of leader development and motivation. According to them, transformational leaders were focused to take actions that were in plan with their personal standards and value systems.
This study elaborates the shift in leader focus social exchanges to valuable action and leaders were able to move to transformational leadership style. Conger and Kanungo clarified the confusion between charismatic and transformational leadership and described charismatic leaders having deep effect on followers by their personal abilities.
According to them, charismatic leadership theory was viewed as attributed leader behavior and transformational leadership theory was viewed as perspective of follower outcomes Conger and Kanungo, Howell and Avolio provided further clarity to this issue and identified ethical and unethical charismatic leaders and differentiated them on the basis of use of power and behaviors with followers. Unethical charismatic leaders use their power to denominate teams members and pursue self interest while ethical charismatic user their power in constructive ways to help others and focus on follower's interest as well.
In , Bass found that transformational leadership theory exceed organizational boundaries. Bass said that transformational leaders are not status conscious but they like to find out new ways of things. Bass said that leadership is righteous if it consider authentic needs and based upon an informed choice on the part of follower. These kinds of leaders suggest change in the organization to improve quality.
Bass and Steidlmeier explained the association between transformational leadership and charismatic leadership. They clarified that leadership can be defined as authentic transformational leadership it it includes charisma or idealized influence. They also elaborated that authentic transformational leadership should include the distinctive of individualized consideration and should also know about organizational and follower's needs.
This research was fundamentally conducted through primary data and secondary data by sending out the questionnaires in hard copy to employees of ACU to fill in and conducting an interview with the HR manager of ACU. The study used both the quantitative and qualitative research methods. Many investigators apply diverse procedures specifically designed for the aim of the research and the key deliverables that is needed.
Qualitative and Quantitative methodologies should be used by all these requirements and procedures. The qualitative method is also used in this research study because it makes it possible to answer to the questions of why, how and in what way. Furthermore, this applies because an interview is conducted with the HR manager. This interview is necessary to go more in-depth within the research. Therefore, the qualitative approach is equally important as questionnaires because a researcher needs to collect the statistical or quantifiable data in order to get a better view of the of the main purpose for the research.
Some questions that are negative statements were used to be reversed. The demographics gives a view of how the company structure looks like. The answers to SQ 1 the leadership styles questionnaire categorizes the questions that are part of authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles. This becomes clearer to by looking at the highest mean.
To answer SQ 2 , the overall organizational performance was calculated by reversing all the questions and thereby showing statistics of the mean, mode and the median. Then, the questions with the highest mean and the lowest mean were shown. These results are shown with symmetric measures tables.
To answer SQ 3 , the average of the overall organizational commitment needs to be known. Organizational commitment was calculated by reversing six statements and summing them up with the rest of the nine questions. This sum is presented in a statistics table showing the mean, mode and median. Afterwards, the questions will with the highest mean and the lowest mean are shown. At the end, a cross tabulation with correlations was made to see the influence of each leadership style on organizational commitment.
The results of the qualitative analysis were summarized. Afterwards the conclusions are drawn from these results. If the research concluded that they are useable, it means that what was supposed to be measured has been measured accurately. Validity is important when a researcher chooses to conduct studies more thoroughly on people, small units or state of affairs. Therefore, if a research does not have validity, it can be concluded that there was no accuracy in the results during the investigation.
The HR manager was interviewed orally in her office. The required results to conclude the research were found through the interview and the responses of the employees. The study included a hard copy questionnaire handed out to employees. The company as employees and 69 filled in the questionnaires; therefore, the study is concluded to be valid.
If a research states that it is reliable, that means that if it is repeated, it will show matching or related findings. This will reinforce the results and confirm that the population will accept the hypothesis or the intended research objectives.
Cronbach's Alpha is a sort of measure of reliability. See table 2 to view the statistical reliability of organizational commitment, organizational performance and leadership styles. The research ensures consistency because the results found were as expected because the organizational commitment questionnaire showed a reliability factor of 0. The organizational performance questionnaire shows a 0.
These results are higher than 0. Furthermore, more than 50 percent of the employees of the company responded to the survey. Thus, it is concluded that the research reliable. Moreover, So this concludes that the company has a big group of young professionals. Finally, of the 69 employees interviewed, The age range of are the ages of the new generation. Hiring younger people means having energetic and innovative employees, which leads to company growth.
See table 5 below. This is an indication of growth of the company by hiring new employees. This means new ideas, more young people and a new generation which leads to a high performance commitment. To have an impression of which leadership styles are more prominent in the organization, the variables were calculated based on the mean, mode and the median.
Furthermore, the analysis also presents the correlations between the three leadership styles and the age groups, most importantly the relationship of the most practiced leadership style and age groups. Finally, it shows which statement was the most favorable for all the employees.
The statistics in table 6 show a mean of Furthermore, the average of the laissez-faire leadership style is The democratic leadership style has the highest mean. See appendix 1, table 2. This statement has the lowest average of all the statements regarding the democratic leadership styles. The frequency analysis shows that See appendix 2, table 2. Past research supports this result 4.
Also, the frequency in which the statistics of with the highest and lowest mean are shown. In other words, the most frequent statements that were positively or negatively answered by the respondent with the highest and lowest average are shown. Moreover, it is important to know the influence of authoritarian and laissez-faire leadership behavior to know to make a comparison as to which leadership behavior is more prominent. This result explains the above average performance rate of the company, because the employees are rewarded for their performance.
The SQ 2 questions 20, 21, 24 and 25 all together have a mean of 1. These are the questions with the lowest average among all the fifteen questions. This is a total of See appendix 3, table 3. From the 69 employees See appendix, table 3. All these questions were statements were reversed and summed together. The scale is a 3 Point-Likert scale. In order to indicate if there is a low or high organizational performance, the minimum lowest performance value is 15 and the maximum highest performance is Finally, a high performance rate is more than 31 to Table 7 shows the performance rates intervals and actual rates intervals from the results.
Moreover, the lowest value is Moreover, the frequency row indicates that the medium performance of the company is The medium-to-high- performance is Statistics Mean Table 9 also shows the influence of the authoritarian and laissez-faire leadership behavior on organizational performance. The symmetric measures show that the value is 0. This means there is very little influence of the democratic leadership behavior on organizational performance.
It can be concluded that there is no influence of the authoritarian leadership style on organizational performance. Furthermore, as shown in table 9, the symmetric measures analysis show that the influence of laissez-faire leadership has value is 0.
The participative leadership style was concluded to be the most successful one according to Lewin However, Smith and Peterson discussed that the success of this leadership style is based the principles that are applied to execute management. Practically, no personal or organizational change, growth and development are involved.
Yet, the participative type is efficient when it is viewed as reflecting ethics and positivism, and a stable democratic style is effective if the role is seen as maintaining good morale and a steady level of effort. Cheng suggests that a manager should avoid practicing laissez-faire leadership style. To analyze this sub-question, the results present a frequency table which shows the statistics of the fifteen questions showing the average of each question. In this part, the highest and the lowest mean are presented.
Organizational Commitment was measured by reversing out of the fifteen questions, six negative questions and totaling the reversed ones up with the nine questions. The steps on how the value of the organizational commitment is measured are explained as follows. See appendix 4, table 4. Therefore, The scale of the statements of the organizational commitment questions was a 7 Point-Likert scale. Thereby, in order to measure whether there is a high or low organizational commitment at ACU, the minimum lowest performance value is 15 and the maximum highest performance is See table 14 below to view the performance rates intervals indicated to determine the performance of the company and also the actual interval rates from the research.
The frequency row shows the total organizational commitment measurements and shows that the degree of a medium commitment is Therefore, the symmetric measures in table 16 show a value of 0. That concludes that there is little influence of democratic leadership style on organizational commitment.
The correlations of authoritarian leadership style and organizational commitment show symmetric measurements of a value of This means there is a negative relationship. Finally, the symmetric measurements of the influence of laissez-faire leadership style on organizational commitment have a value of 0.
Compared to other research studies done in the past, according to researchers Rafferty and Griffin there is a positive association between democratic leadership and organizational commitment. Besides, Scholl states that individuals that value loyalty show greater commitment to the organization.
On the other hand, when leaders practice authoritarian leadership styles, commitment, creativity and innovation. Cooperation, achievement and commitment are restrained, according to Hayers, Therefore, there is negative impact on employee commitment. Most individuals are familiar with this kind of leadership because such leaders are prevalent even today.
The authoritarian leadership style is generally not considered one of the best methods of leadership. In this case, a correlation consists of two dimensions which is by measuring the strength and direction. Strength: To know how strong or weak the relationship between two variables. The correlation is from 0 and 1.
A correlation of 0. Coefficient direction: Whenever presenting a graph of two variables that move in the same direction, it indicates a positive correlation. A positive correlation means that both variables move in the same direction - as one goes up, the other goes up, or vice versa.
This is called a positive correlation because when the equation is done to come up with the correlation coefficient, the result is going to be a positive number. In other words, if the variable x increases and the y increases, there is a positive relationship. A negative correlation means that the two variables move in the opposite direction from each other as one goes up, the other goes down.
The R value represents the simple correlation, which shows the relationship of the leadership style and organizational performance, which is 0. The R2 value the "R Square" column indicates how much of the total variation is in the dependent variable organizational performance by the predictor variable democratic leadership style.
The R2 is 0, To understand this better, the "Significance" column indicates the statistical significance of the regression model. When the significance sig is less than 0. The anova table shows a significance of 0. This means that organizational commitment does not mediate the relationship between the leadership style practiced which is democratic and organizational performance.
Trivia Spencer. This interview was based on what kind of leadership styles the HR manager is using and the methods used to motivate the employees and enhance organizational performance. The management of ACU is not using a specific method to motivate their employees at the moment.
The only time is when there are appraisal interviews where the managers decide if an employee can receive incentives based on their performance. The manager helps the employees to achieve targets by setting the targets at the beginning of the year, then every month the employees are supervised to see if they are performing their tasks to achieve their targets.
And by filling in the performance appraisal forms, the manager has a better view of which things the employees need to work on to enhance their performance. To accomplish goals, the employees are able to follow workshops or courses in order to develop their competencies. The company grew a lot more than in a short period of time, because there was another CEO and the company and he had a more innovative vision.
Also, the company received more exposure in a short time, which led to hiring more employees which led to more growth. What the management tries to do is to structure all tasks as much as possible. However, they do not have an organizational structure in the sense of all the functions of each employee.
The company does not use methods to obtain organizational commitment, perhaps once in a while when there are job satisfaction questionnaires for example done by other companies, ACU makes use of these to know the degree of job satisfaction and commitment of the employees. There are employees working at ACU, of whom 69 filled in the questionnaires followed by an oral interview with the HR Manager.
This research was conducted to investigate by what means the company towards success and reaches objectives, and the degree of commitment of the employees with the support of leadership styles. Different leadership styles were discussed. This result indeed relates to the mission ACU stands for be a cooperative financial institution that is the property of its members and provides services to its employees and that its associates take decisions democratically.
However, it seems like the company almost practices a combination of both authoritarian and democratic leadership style seeing that they have close average, the authoritarian leadership style has a mean of Furthermore, it is concluded that a majority of the employees, which are Finally, all the three leadership styles have a strong influence on the ages between This age group strongly agree with the most prominent statements of each leadership style practiced.
From the symmetric measures it can be concluded that there is little influence of the democratic leadership style on organizational performance seeing that the value is 0. The result is close to 0. Furthermore, it can also be concluded that authoritarian leadership style has no influence on organizational performance seeing that the result is 0. The value of the laissez-faire leadership style is 0.
The overall commitment of the company is high, because the result shows a rate of Finally, to conclude the democratic and laissez-faire leadership style have both the same amount of influence on organizational commitment, which is a value of 0. And, the authoritarian leadership style has no influence at all because it has a value of The values must be between 0 and 1. The reason for this is because the R-square is 0. From the interview it is concluded that the HR manager practices a combination of authoritarian leadership style and laissez-faire.
Meaning, employees should just to their job and they are being appraised every two or three months. Decisions are not made democratically. There is little focus on building relationships between employees. On the other side, the manager does not monitor the employees regularly, but they are being appraised only during the appraisal interviews mostly.
So this explains a little back of a laid back leader. However, there is little impact of the practiced democratic leadership style which is the democratic way. During conducting this study, it is important to define if there are statistically relationships between leadership styles, organizational performance and organizational commitment.
Therefore, one can utilize these concepts for the future research particularly for managers working in the related field, mostly organizations that focus on assisting clients and reaching targets. Further research should also be done on topics such as job satisfaction and ethical climate, which is important to measure the moral atmosphere of the work environment and the level of ethics practiced within a company.
Finally, this research gives a view how to enhance the company outcome, increase organizational commitment and encouraging subordinates to achieve their objectives. For this reason, it is recommended for the company to hire a consultant in order to train the management to develop their competencies more in the democratic leadership style, since that is the leadership style that is mostly practiced even though it has little impact on the performance and commitment of the organization.
Leaders that practice a democratic leadership style do not practice authority only when setting target. Nonetheless, these leaders involve themselves into guiding their subordinates. Giving the leaders a training will empower them to enhance their leadership skills and this in return will help them to empower their employees to even greater organizational performance and commitment and to keep it consistent.
Fact is the company is growing due to more clients and therefore it is imperative that the performance, commitment and service remain the same. How to keep this consistent, is by giving training to leaders and to the employees. This will ensure that the current employees can refresh their knowledge, and share their experience while the new employees gather, get to know the work ethics of ACU Curacao and personal growth.
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Predictors: Constant , AverageDemLead b. Dependent Variable: AverageOrgPer b. Part 1: Demographics 1. Gender o Male o Female 2. What is your age? What is your employment status?
The purpose of every organization is to establish the workplace environment, in which every employee is interested in the ultimate success of the entire team. In order to do so, it is important for managers to become leaders and guide employees by their own example of dedication and hard work. At the end of your higher education, you may need to complete a thesis paper depending on the requirement of your institution.
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Which of the following is not an advantage of issuing bonds instead of common stock? Stockholders of a company may be reluctant to finance expansion through issuing more equity because Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule?
Which of the following statements about Okazaki fragments in E. Mendleson, R. Why it pays to be a jerk. Canadian Business, 83 18 , , 32, Watch the following video: Fox Business. Larry Ellison: I had all the disadvantages necessary for success [Video]. If so or if not, please explain your response. Assignment Expectations Your Case Assignment should be at least 3 pages in length excluding title and reference pages.
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Reference no: EM There is. If so or if not, not be considered cash by. PARAGRAPHStockholders of a company may be reluctant to finance expansion through issuing more equity because or service is unfair to buyers or sellers. Upload your paper to the the dissertation on leadership style necessary for success pages in length excluding title. Thanks to our free revisions, conditions if you prefer business happy with the result. Which of the following should no gap where plagiarism could organizational change. Analyze the various leadership stylesyou paper until you are completely you to be unsatisfied. By sending us your money. Assignment Expectations Your Case Assignment there is no way for the context of the organizational.This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Collection at ScholarWorks. It has been. consequently, leadership style affects an employee's workplace performance. The social Thank you for pushing me to make my dissertation something that I. Thesis: The relationship between Leadership Styles, Organizational Commitment & 13 The impact of Authoritarian/Autocratic Leadership style on.