We recommend that you use structured exception handling in your code whenever possible, rather than using unstructured exception handling and the On Error statement. For more information, see Try Finally Statement. An "enabled" error handler is one that is turned on by an On Error statement. An "active" error handler is an enabled handler that is in the process of handling an error.
If an error occurs while an error handler is active between the occurrence of the error and a Resume , Exit Sub , Exit Function , or Exit Property statement , the current procedure's error handler cannot handle the error. Control returns to the calling procedure. If the calling procedure has an enabled error handler, it is activated to handle the error.
If the calling procedure's error handler is also active, control passes back through previous calling procedures until an enabled, but inactive, error handler is found. If no such error handler is found, the error is fatal at the point at which it actually occurred.
Each time the error handler passes control back to a calling procedure, that procedure becomes the current procedure. Once an error is handled by an error handler in any procedure, execution resumes in the current procedure at the point designated by the Resume statement.
An error-handling routine is not a Sub procedure or a Function procedure. It is a section of code marked by a line label or a line number. Error-handling routines rely on the value in the Number property of the Err object to determine the cause of the error. The routine should test or save relevant property values in the Err object before any other error can occur or before a procedure that might cause an error is called.
The property values in the Err object reflect only the most recent error. The error message associated with Err. Number is contained in Err. An error that is raised with the Err. Raise method sets the Exception property to a newly created instance of the Exception class.
In order to support the raising of exceptions of derived exception types, a Throw statement is supported in the language. This takes a single parameter that is the exception instance to be thrown. The following example shows how these features can be used with the existing exception handling support:. Notice that the On Error GoTo statement traps all errors, regardless of the exception class. On Error Resume Next causes execution to continue with the statement immediately following the statement that caused the run-time error, or with the statement immediately following the most recent call out of the procedure containing the On Error Resume Next statement.
This statement allows execution to continue despite a run-time error. You can place the error-handling routine where the error would occur rather than transferring control to another location within the procedure. An On Error Resume Next statement becomes inactive when another procedure is called, so you should execute an On Error Resume Next statement in each called routine if you want inline error handling within that routine.
Checking Err after each interaction with an object removes ambiguity about which object was accessed by the code. You can be sure which object placed the error code in Err. Number , as well as which object originally generated the error the object specified in Err. On Error GoTo 0 disables error handling in the current procedure. It doesn't specify line 0 as the start of the error-handling code, even if the procedure contains a line numbered 0.
Without an On Error GoTo 0 statement, an error handler is automatically disabled when a procedure is exited. On Error GoTo -1 disables the exception in the current procedure. It does not specify line -1 as the start of the error-handling code, even if the procedure contains a line numbered Without an On Error GoTo -1 statement, an exception is automatically disabled when a procedure is exited.
To prevent error-handling code from running when no error has occurred, place an Exit Sub , Exit Function , or Exit Property statement immediately before the error-handling routine, as in the following fragment:. Here, the error-handling code follows the Exit Sub statement and precedes the End Sub statement to separate it from the procedure flow.
You can place error-handling code anywhere in a procedure. Untrapped errors in objects are returned to the controlling application when the object is running as an executable file. It is good practice to place error handling in every procedure. Generally it is especially important in any routine prone to errors. These include routines that process database information, routines that read from and write to files, and procedures that perform calculations. If an application contains code that relies on some outside events—such as a network connection being available or a disk being ready in a drive—there are always situations that are beyond the control of the developer.
For these instances good error-handling routines are very important. Different routines require different types of error handling. The syntax of the On Error statement can be coded several ways, depending on each situation. This is the most common use of the On Error statement and gives the developer the most control over error handling. A procedure using this format would look something like this:.
As in the preceding procedure, it is generally best to put the On Error statement as the first executable statement in a procedure so that any other lines of code will fall under the control of the On Error statement. In this example when an error occurs anywhere after the On Error statement, execution will continue in the errorhandling code. Error-handling code can contain any Visual Basic statements that can be coded elsewhere.
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